Lines of Action

Lines of Action is a board game, of the same general type as Chess, Go, or Othello. LOA was invented by Claude Soucie, and described in A Gamut of Games by Sid Sackson
Latest Changes: (Last modified Sep 11, 2021)

Historic archive: NOST articles by Ralph Betza on LOA strategy

Online Play at (latest addition: play on a 12x12 board )

Table of Contents

How to Play
Where to play
Variations on the basic Rules
Puzzles and Problems
Loa Tournaments
Sample games: Commented Uncommented
My notes about the LOA
Wish List & Treasure Hunt
Staying In Touch, and other resources
Computer Programs
About The LOA Java Applet 

How to Play

                Loa Board
  • Equipment: An ordinary checkerboard is all that's needed. 
  • Initial Setup: in the standard version of the game, the black checkers are placed in two rows along the top and bottom of the board, while the white stones are placed in two rows at the left and right of the board. 
  • the Object of the Game: is to move your pieces until they are all in one connected group. Diagonals are considered to be connected. 

The Rules of the game

Board showing action lines

Here is a typical board position, with the legal moves for one of the black stones marked. If you are using a Java enabled browser, this diagram is a real board! You can click on any piece to see its legal moves. Click at the end of any move arrow to move there. 

  • Black moves first 
  • Each turn, the player to move moves one of his pieces, in a straight line, exactly as many squares as there are pieces of either color anywhere along the line of movement. (These are the Lines of Action). 
  • You may jump over your own pieces. 
  • You may not jump over your opponents pieces, but you can capture them by landing on them. 

the "fine print" rules

  • If one player is reduced by captures to a single piece, that is a win for the captured player. 
  • If a move simultaneously creates a win for both the player moving and the opponent, the player moving wins. There are actually quite a few Unusual endgames which are at least theoretically possible. 

A normal endgame position

A typical
Here is a typical finished game, where black has just won the game: 

Where to Play

As of this moment, there are four places to play anytime, anywhere.

Method #1 is to play at home.

That's right, corral some like minded soul, dig a checkerboard out of the closet, and actually meet. In person. That's the best way, and always will be.

Method #2 is to play by web/email

A full play-by-web implementation of LOA is available at Little Golem, along with many other fine games. littlegolum board

Richard's PBeM Server serves many types of board games, including LOA. The offerings there include an off site archive of the games played. To get started playing, send mail to with help as the subject, or check out the PBEM web site.

Method #3 Play a human or computer opponent, on line.

Lines of Action is online here at   The online version is based on the same java applet as the rest of the LOA web site, but with upgraded graphics, and live opponents.  I believe this this version is much more satisfactory than the version at LudoTeka, which was nice in principle, but never really satisfactory as a site for serious games.

Special events Consult the RealWorld page for other, irregular opportunities to play or participate in activities related to LOA.


Like most interesting games, Lines of Action lends itself to variations on the basic game. Some of these are mere curiosities, others are played regularly on their own merits.

Material from the NOST archives!!!   Unearthed and scanned by Tracy Cobbs, this PDF has the original strategy notes by Ralph Betza. 

Wish List

Here are some items related to LOA that I'd like to track down.

My notes about LOA

Lines of Action is a board game of the same general type as Chess, Go, and Reversi. It was invented, circa 1969, by Claude Soucie; and described by Sid Sackson in A Gamut of Games. To my knowledge, it has never been commercialized in the U.S., most likely because no one could figure out how to make a profit selling a non-traditional game based on such simple equipment.

However, Philip Cohen reports owning an actual boxed board, published by a German company called "Hexgames".

hexagames loa
I have before me a wooden box containing Lines of Action, (c) Hexagames 1987 (a West German game company). Soucie's name is on the front of the Spielanleitung/Game Instructions/Regles de Jeu sheet. There's a rolled-up cloth board and twelve square wooden pieces, brown with beige fleurs-de-lis on them or beige with brown fleurs-de-lis. The advantage over checker pieces is that you can play four-handed or ambidextrous LOA with them by orienting the fleurs-de-lis differently on the four sides
On the other hand, my few encounters with "Hexagames" while researching LOA suggested that it is now out of business, so perhaps my "not commercially viable" comment is valid after all. Helmut Wresnik reports that the "Hexagames" version is still available from a successor company called "Abacus"
D-63303 Dreieich
Schopenhauerstr. 41
T.: 06103 36626
Fax.: 06103 65273
I bet they have other interesting games for sale too!

Since its invention and up to now, Lines of Action has led a nomadic existence on the fringes of gamers' society. I was introduced to the game by my friend Dave Poole, who said it was "from Stanford", but otherwise had no idea where it came from. This kind of irregular introduction seems to be pretty much the norm. For example, Don Woods wrote:

I don't know, but I do remember that John Gilbert, David Wall, et al. had encountered the game prior to coming to Stanford. (They called it "John's Sister's Game", because they'd heard about it from John's sister and didn't know the actual name.)
and David Wall wrote:
John's sister, Jean Gilbert, introduced it to us; I have the vague idea she learned about it at university, though whether that was the University of New Mexico where we were all undergraduates or UC Santa Cruz where she got a masters, I don't recall.
And the meme continues: just recently , Hwei Yin posted to
Hey There Guys (and Gals)! I have a game for you to try! I don't think this game has a title, but it appears to be non-trivial. I saw it in an ancient issue of Science (Mathematical Games). We've been having a blast playing it. It requires a checker board and checkers.
The game, of course, is LOA. This kind of life-of-its-own is the hallmark of a truly great game. It doesn't require hype or commercial motives to keep it going, it just lives.

Keeping in Touch and other resources LOA forums
BoardGameGeek LOA pages

Other LOA pages

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